Piekkola, H. (2020), “Intangibles and innovation-labor-biased technical change”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp. 649-669.

This paper analyzes the productivity effects of structural capital such as research and development (R&D) and organizational capital (OC). Innovation work also produces innovation-labor-biased technical change (IBTC) and knowledge spillovers.

The paper finds that the OC-IBTC as well as total resources allocated to OC are relevant for productivity growth. The R&D stock is relatively higher but R&D-IBTC is smaller than OC-IBTC. Therefore, public policy should, besides technology policy, account for OC and OC-IBTC and related knowledge spillovers in the industries that are most important among the SMEs.

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